Saturday, May 16, 2020

Book Review The Southern Press - 1515 Words

In a letter to â€Å"The Southern Press,† dated July 20, 1850, G.K. Lewis shared his knowledge and frustrations regarding the many invasions by the Indians. What could be worse than knocking someone down when they are merely trying to pick up the pieces after being defeated? These vicious attacks by the Indians did not only take place in the United States, they took place in Mexico as well. Unknown to most readers, Indians are not as innocent as one is accustomed to believing. In actuality, some Indians were persistent as they inflicted numerous depredations less than 20 miles from Fort Brown, one of the largest military posts in Texas. During this time, it was just a blatant disregard for law and order. The manner in which these vicious†¦show more content†¦In continuing on the same path of Indian attacks, fast-forward to the Mexican-American War. As a result of Mexico’s defeat by the United States, Mexican troops were unable to enforce counterattacks o n the Indians once the Indians retreated back across the U.S. Mexican Border. The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was the first U.S. armed conflict fought on foreign soil. It positioned a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist-minded administration of U.S. President James K. Polk, who believed the United States had a â€Å"manifest destiny† to spread across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. A border skirmish along the Rio Grande started off the fighting and was followed by a series of U.S. victories. When the dust cleared, Mexico had lost about one-third of its territory, including nearly all of present-day California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. In exchange for surrendering and his release to the United States, the Mexican General Santa Anna agreed to have the boundary line set at the Rio Grande between Texas and Mexico. Of course, it did not pan out as expected. The plan presented was for the boundary to run northward. This would include New Mexico as well as some land in west Texas. Instead, th e Mexican government drew the border at the Nueces River.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ratification of Constitution Essay - 869 Words

The Constitution has been operative since 1789 after the ratification of nine states (American Vision and Values, Page 52). Today many question the relevancy of a document 222 years old to our society. The Founders created a governmental framework, defining three branches and giving powers to the government and others to the states. It also guarantees the rights of the people. It took two and one-half years for the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution. This ratification period was one of great debate and produced a series of essays complied into The Federalist. Authored by John Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay during the ratification debate in New York, they tried to get public support for the Constitution. Thus began the first†¦show more content†¦To further strengthen the rights of the people, The Bill of Rights was ratified on December 15, 1791. With only the first ten amendments, it is no accident that two amendments, 9 and 10, specifically define the Consti tutions purpose to protect rights, given to the government from the people; and the powers of the government are â€Å"only those delegated to it by the Constitution on behalf of the people† (Spalding, Page 145). Madison in Federalist No. 10 (Page 131) also supports the view of the Framers to have â€Å"great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular to the State legislatures†. Madison expounds further in Federalist No. 39 (Page 135) about the constitutional limits of government to â€Å"certain enumerated objects only,† and the states being delegated the remaining â€Å"objects†. Federalism was created in the Constitution and while it seems a difficult concept U.S. Attorney General, Edwin Meese’s definition is very simply put â€Å"institution design was to divide sovereignty between two different levels of political entities, the nation and the states†. (American Vision and Values, Page 62). Moore goes further in support of originalism with examples of Jefferson, Madison, Crockett, Pierce and Cleveland vetoing or rebutting congressional billsShow MoreRelatedThe Debate And Ratification Of The Constitution883 Words   |  4 PagesThe Debate and Ratification of the Constitution The Constitution of the United States of America was ratified in 1789. It begins with, â€Å"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.† The constitution was to serve basicRead MoreThe United States And The Ratification Of The Constitution2191 Words   |  9 PagesAnti-federalists- were a group of people opposed to the ratification of the constitution. They were less organized than the Federalists. They were united in their fear that the Constitution might lead down a path of government corruption and tyranny. They believed in restricting government power. Benefits of federalism- Federalism allows people to maintain loyalty to their states; due to increasing the states ability to meet the citizen’s needs. It makes running this huge country easier and allowsRead MoreThe Constitution Convention And The Ratification Debate Essay1196 Words   |  5 Pagesof Pluralism in the Constitution Convention and the ratification debate The constitutional conventions importance is indisputable, it is one of the biggest turning points in history and it is also an event that continues to affect politics to this day. It can’t be ignored, the constitutional convention has such a big historical significance and such a direct impact on America. People have tried to examine the workings behind the constitutional convention and the ratification debate. Many peopleRead MoreThe Ratification Of The U.S. Constitution. . . Richard1892 Words   |  8 Pages The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution Richard Fernandez HIST 107 J. DeMarco February 28, 2017 (Insert a Page Break here to maintain a separation between your title page and page one) What we re going to focus on was The Articles of Confederation that are in place in the government during the Post American Revolution into the ratification of United States Constitution. A republic was essentially a government in which citizens roll thru elected representative. The people weRead MoreThe Ratification Of The Us National Constitution3020 Words   |  13 Pagestopics: The ratification of the constitution in 1787 limits the democratic freedoms that American citizens had gained right after the Revolutionary War; the New Deal Coalition and policies formed by the President Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) that prevents the country from becoming a socialist stave and saves the democratic and capitalist system; and the G.I Bill compensated the war veterans leading to the emergence of the American middle class. Limitation on Democracy: The ratification of the US nationalRead MoreEssay about U.S. Constitution Ratification Debates789 Words   |  4 PagesU.S. Constitution Ratification Debates On September 28, 1787, after three days of bitter debate, the Confederation Congress sent the Constitution to the states with neither an endorsement nor a condemnation. This action, a compromise engineered by Federalist members, disposed of the argument that the convention had exceeded its mandate; in the tacit opinion of Congress, the Constitution was validly before the people. The state legislatures decisions to hold ratifying conventionsRead MoreWhy the ratification of the constitution was a good thing1595 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Why the ratification of the constitution was a good thing The Constitution of the United States is one of the first written constitutions and one of the ‘oldest’ to have been made on the national level and applicable today. It was developed and adopted by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in May and September, 1787. The Constitution of 1787 followed the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The U.S. Declaration of IndependenceRead MoreThe Debate Over Ratification Of The United States Constitution940 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican history has been the arguments made by the Federalists and the Antifederalists over the ideas and powers stated within the United States Constitution. A large number of authors who write about the debates between these two political groups present the ideas of the Federalist and Antifederalist as separate, opposing ideologies about how the U.S. Constitution should either stay the same for the sake of the country or be amended to grant border rights to the public and states. To begin a paper aboutRead MoreAnti Federalists Vs The Ratification Of The U.s. Constitution1074 Words   |  5 PagesOn the other hand, Anti-Federalists were against the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Unlike the Federalists, many of the Anti-Federalists were not included in the deliberations on the new constitution; they were not selected as delegates to the consti tutional convention. Anti-Federalists were in favor of a confederacy; a system where the central government exercises no control over subunit governments (i.e. states) and acts for the subunits. Therefore, their name, Anti-Federalists, is notRead MoreWhy Did The Federalist Papers Influence The Ratification Of The Constitution?2354 Words   |  10 PagesSection A: Identification and Evaluation of Sources This investigation will explore the question: To what extent did The Federalist Papers influence the ratification of the Constitution? The publications, arguments, and effects of this document will be the focus of the investigation to allow for an analysis of where and in what ways The Federalist was influential during the constitutional conventions from 1787 to 1789. The first source that will be evaluated in depth is Ron Chernow’s book â€Å"Alexander

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Critically evaluate Samuel Huntingtons claims in The Clash of Civilizations free essay sample

The abrupt end of the Cold War meant that the bipolar model of thinking which had dominated the sphere of World Politics for decades became obsolete. This new phase led to a renewal in thinking in the study of International Relations dubbed â€Å"the hundred schools of thought† which led to a wide spectrum of visions about the uncertain future of world affairs. One of the more prominent visions was the late Professor Samuel Huntingtons â€Å"Clash of Civilizations? † published in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article, where he predicted a growing pattern of conflict based on differences in cultural, religious and historical identity of entities he labelled civilizations instead of the ideological differences of the Cold War Era. Huntingtons thesis was a Realist response to Fukuyamas 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man. Fukuyama argued that the post-1991 world was left with no viable ideological alternative to liberal democracy and the free market economy predicting a new era of global consensus on democracy, justice, human rights and cooperation. The nation will continue to be a central pole of identification, even if more and more nations come to share common economic and political forms of organization. i Huntingtons premise was that The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain as the most powerful actors in world affairs but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. ii The controversial nature of Huntington’s thesis ensured the stern critique by some of his fellow academics for reasons including oversimplification, neglecting contradicting factors and inaccurate predictions. The tragedy of 9/11 and the events that followed revived the confidence in his thesis by his supporters who saw this as the conformation of Huntington’s predictions notably the inconsolable clash between Islam and the West. Huntington begins by describing the historical evolution of the nature of conflicts in the Western World; from the competition between monarchs and emperors for territorial and mercantile expansion leading to the emergence of nation states beginning with the French Revolution, to the rise of ideological conflict after the Bolshevik Revolutioniii. His Eurocentric bias is clear early as he quotes and perpetuates an idea put forward before by William Lind that these were primarily ‘Western Civil Wars’. Labelling World War II, the deadliest military conflict in history which involved the majority of the world’s nations, as such greatly diminishes the involvement and sacrifices made by people across the world. Notably the Soviet Union which was mainly composed of nations Huntington would regard as part of a Slavic-Orthodox civilization sustained the highest amount of casualties totalling at around twenty-seven millioniv. Later in the paragraph, Huntington writes ‘peoples and governments of non-Western civilizations no longer remain the objects of history as targets of Western colonialism but join the West as movers of history’ as if to suggest that events occurring in non-western parts of the world somehow do not constitute as history if they don’t involve or have a felt effect upon Western society. Although the leadership of the West in fields such as science, technology and engineering for the larger part in recent centuries is indisputable; Jewish philosophy, Hindu mathematics, Muslim astronomy and engineering contributed significantly to the foundations of what we know today and this shouldnt be undermined. The sharing and borrowing of ideas between the different corners of the world through the millennias thats still going on today suggests a long-term cooperation instead of a clash of civilizations in our common pursuit of knowledge. According to Huntington a civilization is the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identityv. He divides the worlds population into seven civilizations as well as hinting at the possibility of a Caribbean and an African civilization; Africa being indeed a continent known for its vast diversity of cultures and traditionsvi. He defines a civilization by what he calls objective elements such as language, history and primarily religion as well as by the subjective self-identification of people. Huntington argues the onset of globalization has led to increased levels of interaction between peoples of different civilizations, which in turn intensifies civilization consciousness and brings to the forefront their cultural differences which unlike ideological and political differences are fundamental and much less mutable and hence less easily compromised. It’s clear that people instinctively identify themselves closely to others who share common traditions, customs and history; I hold the belief however that Huntington downplays the penetration of globalization and focuses on one aspect of its possible consequences. It’s not the differences that drive cultural conflict between peoples; it’s the lack of understanding which in turn creates prejudices and fears. The increased interactions between peoples have led to a wider acceptance of and fascination with other cultures, helping us understand why foreign societies live the way they do. Huntington argues: ‘†¦Russians cannot become Estonians and Azeri’s cannot become Armenian’vii. An Estonian living in Russia will absorb aspects of Russian culture depending on one’s willingness, length of stay and the extent to which one feels alienated or accepted by Russian society. Thus the objective elements invoked are not convincingly definitive in determining one’s identity; an Englishman may choose to convert to Islam while a Chinese citizen in Shanghai may choose to learn French as a pastime. Globalization in itself has penetrated the long-standing limitations in global trade of the past; politicians ever increasingly have to consider the global implications of domestic policy. More than ever national states around the world are dependent upon each other; the United States Demands Chinese goods while China needs the US to buy its goods. Huntington ascribes ideas such as constitutionalism, human rights, the rule of law, free markets and democracy as Western; unable to gain a foothold in other civilizations. He writes: ‘Modern democratic government originated in the West. When it has developed in non-western societies it has usually been the product of the western colonialism or imposition’viii. suggesting that somehow peoples of other civilizations may not be able to sustain or see the benefits of a form of democratic governance. The people of India would point out that democratic government was formed in their country despite, not because of the Westix. Today more than two-thirds of the world’s governments operate in some form of democracy, which reaffirms the idea that democracy is a universal value, contradicting Huntington’s view of its general Western exclusivity. If asked, most Middle-Easterners would prefer the idea of a democratic to authoritarian governancex; the limitation of democratic development in the region however is a product of the unstable and incompatible political landscape rather than the irreconcilability of the culture. Defining the religious aspects of the Western Civilization, Huntington justifies the grouping of Protestant and Catholic Christians into a single entity by emphasizing shared experiences in European history such as the Renaissance, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution which in turn separates them from the Orthodox Christians beyond Central Europexi. Although it is evident that the closer proximity of those events has influenced Protestants and Catholics more than their Orthodox counterparts, the closer resemblance of Catholic and Orthodox practices and beliefs as opposed to Protestants is however neglected. Huntington consistently appeals to religion as the primary source of cultural identity, rightly so, to a Christian the creeds of their religion have a profound influence on their world view and thus how they would identify themselves. When speaking of the Islamic civilization however, Huntington doesn’t seem to make the effort to differentiate between the major denominations of Shia, Sunni and Sufism which have so strongly influenced the historical and especially current political landscape of the Middle-East. In a passionate attempt to warn his fellow Americans of the potential threats that their country may face in the post-Cold War environment, Huntington essentially perpetuated ideas that were dangerous and self-fulfilling. The existence of a Confucian-Islamic connection that may threaten the West described by Huntingtonxii is yet to be empirically verified, as the Chinese and US economies remain inter-linked and Barrack Obama moves towards a policy of dialogue in the Middle-East. Given the history of US foreign policy, legislators would have found Huntington’s paradigm easy to understand and convenient in terms of implementation. A worldview of distrust towards foreign powers that demands the maintaining of military superiority in the name of security panders to the powerful military industrial complex in the US. In order to maintain peace, global stability and have any hopes of dealing with transnational issues such as global warming, policy makers should regard all nations as members of the world community and work closer with international organizations such as the UN and WTO in establishing universal laws. The alienation and coercion of other governments will indeed create an atmosphere of antagonism and hostility.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Marketing Mix for a Clothing Store free essay sample

As a clothing store which is focusing on local designed and European designed clothes, our products are going to be high-end, fashionable, green and unique. ?First, because the trend of   develops very fast, we want to encourage our designers to consider using green dressing materials or put some elements of eco-awareness in their creations. At the same time, we are going to use Environmental protection shopping bag in our business and use green materials to decorate our store. ?Second, the elements of FASHION are the main selling point for us. We are going to collect some latest designed creations from local designers in Vancouver or European cities. However, we know there are not all fashion design can be dressed everyday, so we want to pick the most feasible designs to produce, on the other hand, we also provide some photos and introduction for the designs that we didn’t pick, then customers can customize the cloth they want and we can provide the order process and delivery services for them, this is another way to make profit and save the total cost of goods for us. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Mix for a Clothing Store or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Third, because we want to emphasize the uniqueness of our products, then we are not going to mass-produce the design we pick. We want to make sure there is only several numbers of clothes in same design but different sizes. Because our design are latest and local young designer’s creations are not popular than famous designer’s, we want every cloth we sold has its designer’s own style, then we can maintain the uniqueness of our products. ?Forth, because we are going to sold unique, fashionable and green products to customers, these products should be high-end and have a good quality. PRICE Because our products are high-end and comparatively unique than other stores, our prices of product are going to be higher than common clothing stores. However, our products are not luxuries because we want the middle class family can afford the clothes, shoes and accessories that we provide to them. ?For the products we sold in local store: we want to double the price than the products in GAP or other popular clothing stores. ?For the customized products: we need to calculate the total amount of cost of ordering, production and delivery. We estimate the price of these products should be twice higher than our usual products. (I just guess this price thing, you guys decide it†¦. ) PROMOTION Because our main selling point is â€Å"local†, so our promotion strategy should focus on local market. ?We want to promote our store through local newspaper but the space of our advertisement in newspaper should not be too big. Consider of the cost of advertisement and the segment of market we pick, we need a moderate size but cool advertisement to match up to our store. We also want to exhibit our products or the latest fashion design to the local markets. So, we want to hold a launch party to exhibit these designs softly to potential customers. Not only when the store is opening, but we want to hold this kind of party seasonal. We can also invite the designers and VIP customers come to our party to communicate with each other. We think these parties can increase the brand loyalty and increase the times of exposure. ?W e also want to sponsor local match of fashion design when we have enough capitals. It is a good way to advertise our brand and make a good relationship with potential talent designers. PEOPLE Our target segment of clothing market is the people around 25-40 years old and have a higher than moderate income in each month. These people, rather than older people, buy cloth base on its design or whether it is popular, they like to spent hundreds of dollar to purchase some unique and fashion clothes and have a ability to afford their high-end taste. Indeed, rich people see these fashion clothes and their high prices as the symbol of their status and they let themselves to become the most profitable targets in the fashion clothes market. PLACE We have two channels to distribute our products, one is the tangible local store in Granville Street and another one is the intangible internet web-site. ?The reason why we want to host a web-site is that along with the development of the online security technology and online business, people want to purchase cloth online if we can provide them a more onvenient way to shopping. But, we must provide the pictures of products with high pixels and clear introductions of products and designers. ?For our local store, we want to set up a place with cool and modern internal design and can provide a soft environment to customers. In the store, we are going to play some local music to emphasize our characteristic and target market. The reason why we choose the Granville Street is (†¦. i really n ot familiar with this†¦please adds sth†¦)

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Essay Sample on Healthcare Governance Strategic Management Systems

Essay Sample on Healthcare Governance Strategic Management Systems Operation and managing of a medical practice requires multiple functions coordinated towards working the same goal and that is to give satisfaction to the patients by hiring trusted and highly qualified professionals to handle different medical services with a loving touch. System influences regulatory issues such as Medicare/HIPAA compliance, coding even handling reviews and audit. They must also effectively analyze fee schedules and overhead production analysis to prevent improper budgeting. Cost accounting services is also part of this revenue enhancement. Part of the system strategic planning consultation is practicing valuation, conducting negotiations and contract review. Organizations can harvest several benefits from appropriately practicing strategic management. Thompson (1992) noted that strategic management provides better direction to the entire organization on the vital point of   what it is we are trying to do and achieve?. The second benefit is seen financially as effective strategic management system increases productivity according to (Certo Peter, 1988, p. 7) since it provides managers with a basis to evaluate competing budget request for investing capital and new staff. Governance is manifested by a group of individuals who have the authority and the strategic intent to make things happen. In this paper, several relevant constituencies are discussed. Components parts of an organization were composed mainly of the governing boards which are responsible for making policies or establishing direction under which the organization will operate. There are different types of governing boards in health care. The Philanthropic governing boards w hich service are more oriented and concerned primarily with spanning the boundary between the health care organization and the community. These boards are larger and more diverse to add on the exposure of the broadest community as possible. The appointed committee’s major duty is to prepare the plan in accordance with the hospital’s general mission, policies and corporate requirements set by the board. The board also advises the committee of what is expected of it in terms of its duties, the basic philosophy underlying its activities, any set timetable to report back to the board, and the support of its authority to make any special arrangements necessary to carry out the required tasks. And the one responsible for all the information and support the implementation of the board’s decisions is the CEO. The CEO coordinates the hospital’s resources in order to fulfill the institution’s medical care mission in the most efficient and effective way.   Then he or she tries to manage the hospital’s funds, personnel, material and equipment in a business-like manner. He or she is responsible for all the other functions such as the medical staff functions, nursing services, technical activities, and the general services activities. Successful implementation of clinical governance may also be facilitated by taking advantage of quality improvement approaches which may have a long standing role in different localities such as local audit groups. Many interviewees were seeking to develop values rather than set specific priorities and to develop an environment in which practice staff viewed active engagement with clinical governance activities .Meetings with practice clinical governance leads (invariably doctors) were common tools in opening channels of communication with practices. Some participants argued that this strategy will be undermined unless a perceived blame culture which is seen by many health practitioners to pass throu gh the health sector that is replaced by a non-judgmental open and participative culture. Most of the senior managers in the sample were aware that many practitioners associate clinical governance with quality assurance and that it perpetuates a blame culture associated with monitoring performance rather than quality improvement. Some interviewees stated that the governments main agenda for clinical governance was policing orientated quality assurance; this generated suspicion among health professionals. Indeed, several managers stressed that they saw their role as a buffer between government and practices. Most interviewees especially clinical governance leads consequently felt that the successful implementation of clinical governance depends on getting the culture right, with all practices becoming involved in quality improvement activities. This applies particularly to general practitioners who are also being asked to buy into a corporate philosophy alien to their independent con tractor status. Few doctors were felt to be against quality improvement, but many were thought to be cautious of how it would be implemented and some were thought to be scared of the current focus on revalidation and review. While core staff composed of general practitioners, practice nurses, and practice managers which are increasingly supportive of clinical governance. Scally and Donaldson (1998) suggested that a number of factors can impact on the healthcare governance agenda. Current policies on pay transformation and role re design are creating significantly more work for staff and these pressures them by additional challenging deadlines. Some of the barriers to have successful implementation of clinical governance are lack of support from other staff or from the management, problems in funding, lack of time to address all challenging agenda, few staff to implement clinical services and continued disengagement by some staff. These barriers can be divided into structural, resour ce, and cultural barriers. Structural barriers include weak line management or contractual levers to influence general medical services practices, rather than personal medical services practices. Resource barriers include a perceived lack of staff, skills, or information to implement clinical governance. Doubt by practice staff of the aim of clinical governance or problems overcoming the perceived blame culture associated with quality assessment, are cultural barriers which will take longer to address. The vision, mission and goals of an organization have a direct impact on the strategy ultimately adopted. The vision is a view of the future taking today decisions that will affect tomorrow’s issues. It is â€Å"a blueprint of a desired state, a mental image, a picture of a preferred condition that organizations work to achieve in the future† (Johnston, 1994, p. 24). To define a vision for a hospital is rather a challenge especially if its leaders are unable to see beyond today’s mission to a vision for tomorrow. According to Rathwell (1987, pp. 156-63), the strategic vision is commonly regarded to be the corporate philosophy or statement of basic principles that govern the direction in which an organization seeks to develop. The development of one commonly shared vision necessitates the collaboration of the Trustees who should all agree on a set of values, views, and principles. These accepted standards form the basis for the formation of a genuinely shared valu e statement. Hospital’s pro-activity necessitates the expression and revision of the vision statement on an annual basis in consideration of the environment and known trends. The mission conversely represents the harmony and articulation of the organization’s perceptive of the external opportunities, pressures and the internal strengths and weaknesses. We must always remember that strategic management systems provide consistency of actions, and clear objectives and direction for employees thus, boosting their commitment for the sake of the sacred objective of achieving corporate synergy. Recognizing that the successful implementation of clinical governance in general practice will require cultural as well as organizational changes and the compliance if not enthusiasm of practices, system must focus on   their energies on supporting practices and by getting   involved in multi-professional and corporate clinical governance activities such as facilitative non-policing approaches. Such approaches adhere to a quiet word system of networking. Lessons learnt from the introduction of clinical guidelines also stress out the importance of constant implementation strategies and a sense of ownership by those involved. This is a sample essay on Healthcare written from scratch by one of our academic writers. If you need a custom written essay, research paper, term paper, dissertation, thesis feel free to contact our company now to get professional academic writing help.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Interoffice Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Interoffice Memo - Essay Example I do believe that law enforcement agents can be an asset in this field of investigation where digital evidence need to be handled with care much like any physical evidence should be handled in order to be assured that evidence would not be tampered with from the time it is collected unto the time that the evidence is used in court. As you have informed me, your team is not computer-trained. This should not stop your team from broadening the scope of their responsibility. It used to be that only people who are highly trained in computers are able to assist in such cases of crime as involves computers or data objects found in computer files. However, due to the proliferation of computer crimes in recent years, it has become quite impractical to be only employing the "experts" as it slows down the investigation process. It is not only impractical; it becomes quite unreasonable to have a few experts perform these duties by themselves (O'Shea, n.d.). Thus it has become necessary that law enforcement agents also be involved in the "chain of custody" in a crime scene where computers are directly involved. In this connection it would be a good thing to come together and discuss vital issues on the management of digital evidence. Your law enforcement team could undergo basic training on how to recognize, seize, transport and store original evidence in order to preserve it for forensic examination. Details of this training will be discussed in a meeting that I hope to soon have with your team. But in a nutshell, let me lay out what I hope would give you an overview of how your law enforcement team could participate in the investigation of the case at hand. Seizure Methodology Let us discuss seizure methodology. Traditionally, the first thing that must be done is to secure the physical scene, followed by securing the digital scene. In such a scenario, "all hardware and media are seized, documented, labeled and packaged for delivery to the lab" (O'Shea, n.d.). In the lab, all seized data is analyzed. This is the simplest chain of duties to be done. This, however, works well if there is only a single computer or a few computers involved. In our case where a number of computers are involved, the methodology becomes a bit more detailed because seizing all the computers would be quite impractical to do. In the event where there are a handful of computers involved, the following steps are involved: digital media identification, prioritizing the physical media so as to minimize the crime scene and then the seizure of storage devices and media. In digital media identification we simply try to find the digital media that has the highest probability of having the much sought after evidence. After the identification of all possible media involved, it must be determined which among these contain information leading to the crime. It would be impractical to get all the devices at the

Monday, February 10, 2020

To what extent have the Millennium Development Goals been a success Essay

To what extent have the Millennium Development Goals been a success - Essay Example Goal 1: Extreme poverty and hunger should be eradicated. The goal will be achieved by reducing the number of people earning less than $1 per day to one half by 2015. It also emphasizes on reduction of the number of people suffering from poverty to one half by the same date. Goal 2: Every child on earth, male or female, should be able to primary education by 2015. Goal 3: To eradicate gender disparity, it will be ensured that men and women have equal access to education facilities at all levels. Goal 4: Mortality rate of children under five should be reduced by two third of the present value. Goal 5: Proper medical care should be provided to women to ensure three quarters reduction in maternal mortality rate by 2015. Reproductive health care should be made universally available. Goal 6: Spread of Malaria and HIV/AIDS should be reversed by 2015. Goal 7: Programs should be initiated for sustainable development without the adverse effects on environment. Safe drinking water should be mad e available to more people with the water deficient population reduced to one half by 2015. Goal 8: A partnership should be developed between rich and poor countries to achieve the MDGs. It defines the mechanism of how the poorer countries will be able to achieve these goals with the financial and technical support of developed countries. The content of these goals is derived from the United Nations Development Conferences held after the inception of United Nations Development Program in 1965. Millennium Development Goals – Successes and Short Comings: The overall progress towards the MDGs is very different in different countries and regions around the globe. Most of the developing countries have limited their focus towards the first goal with a very limited or no focus towards environmental and health aspirations of MDGs. It is observed by different analysts that so far the targets set by MDGs are not met on an international scale. However, success of individual countries or regions can be observed which shall be discussed in the following lines with reference to each of the eight goals. 1. The first goal has been the primary focus of most of the governments in developing countries for reasons both political and financial. China and Vietnam for example have reduced their population earning less than $1 per day from more than 35% to less than 14% of the total population. Considerable progress on the goal has been made in South Asian countries particularly India where ration of population living below poverty line has been reduced from 37.5% to 26.1%. Very little progress was however observed in the countries of Latin America and Middle East. For most of the European countries goal 1 was not a challenge as the average income of their population was well above $1 per day. 2. As in the case of first goal discussed above, the progress towards the ‘education for all’ target of UN was different for different countries. UN task forces note that un der developed countries such as Bolivia and Cameron have allocated greater proportions of annual budget to the development in health and education sector. For the most European and Central Asian countries, it is anticipated that they will be able to achieve the targets set in goal 2 by 2015. However, serious setbacks have been faced in many of the African countries such as Mozambique and Tanzania where primary school enrollment has decreased over the past few years. 3. Since the announcement of Millennium Declaration, women

Friday, January 31, 2020

Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology Essay Example for Free

Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology Essay Social Action Theorists, or Interactionists are also known as micro sociologists, this is because instead of looking at the bigger picture in society, and how the large structures and institutions such as the education and judiciary systems affect individuals, which is what Marxists and Functionalists (macro sociologists) look at, Social Action Theorists look at the opposite, how us, individuals, act by our own accord, and how we make up society. This is known as a ‘bottom up’ view of society. They see people as having a much more active role in society, as opposed to the passive puppets that Structuralists make us out to be. They reject the view that our behaviour is the product of these organisations and structure. Although Social Action Theorists do look very much as individual behaviour, they also take into account the fact that we are aware of the people around us, they argue that our behaviour is influenced by how other individuals react to us and behave, so society is made up because people come together and interact. We are able to react to each other’s behaviour in this way because we have learnt how to expect what people should and shouldn’t do, and how to interpret behaviour. We have meanings for various symbols during interactions, for example, someone frowning may show confusion or anger, and someone swearing with a hand gesture may be insulting, because of these codes and symbols, we are able to anticipate behaviour, and judge how people are feeling. This also gives us a knowledge about what behaviour is and isn’t appropriate in certain situations. These different situations can also affect how we behave and what behaviour is acceptable, for example shouting and swearing may be seen as acceptable at a football match, but this would be highly inappropriate in the middle of a supermarket or library. These behaviours and expected ways of carrying ourselves, or norms and values, (especially the basic ones, such as how to act around others) are learnt from the family at a young age. However education teaches us how to act in a larger range of social situations. The acquiring of this knowledge is what leads to us gaining our identity. Social action theorists suggest that there are three main parts to our identity. The first of these parts is the things that make us individual, such as name, signature and photograph. The second aspect is social identity, which is made up of the personality characteristics that are associated with our role in society. For example, I am seen as an older brother, which society may make me out to be annoying and protective of my younger sibling, but I am also seen as a student, who is perceived to be hard-working and well-behaved. The final part of our identity is the concept of ‘self’, or what we think of ourselves, and how we think we play our respective roles. This concept of ‘self’ has been developed further by social action theorists, who believe that this can be further broken down into two components, the ‘I’ and the ‘me’. The ‘I’ is the private inner self, what we truly think of ourselves, whereas ‘me’ is the social self, and is the one that carries out the roles of brother and student. Goffman referred to society as a play, and that we are all as individuals, actors in this play, or in the drama of everyday life. The expected ways of behaving, or social norms are the script, for example, greeting someone with ‘Good morning’ is expected. He suggests that the roles we carry out are simply a performance designed to create a particular impression. For example in front of grandparents, I put on this performance of being exceptionally well mannered (believe it or not). Another part of social action theory is the concept of labelling. This is when someone is put into a group, or stereotyped, because of the way they look or act. For example a young person may be labelled as a ‘goth’ because they have pale skin, black hair, and listen to a certain type of music. Becker came up with the idea of a Master Status. This means that an individual can have a status (normally negative) which overrides all other labels. For example, someone may be a very good brother and son, but then may be arrested for robbery, and then the label of ‘criminal’ will become his master status, and people won’t see the brother or the son they saw before, they will simply see him as a criminal. It is believed that these labels lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. This means that someone will react to the label they have been given, and this label will become true. For example, if a teacher (very wrongly) labels a student as ‘dumb’ they may think they genuinely are dumb, and will not do well at school. However it has been argued that the opposite can occur, and people may go out of their way to disprove their label, to carry on with the example before, the ‘dumb’ student may try exceptionally hard at home and at school, to prove the teacher wrong, the label may act as motivation. There are many criticisms of Social Action Theory, one being that they tend to be very vague when describing who is responsible for creating these norms and values, and interpretations that mean we know how to act around people and in certain situations. They fail to explain power, and factors which may affect these norms such as class or gender.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Hamlet - Claudius Vs. Lady Macbeth Essay -- essays research papers

Claudius vs. Lady Macbeth King Claudius of Hamlet and Lady Macbeth of Macbeth exhibit three similar qualities, dishonesty, evilness, and deceitfulness throughout the play; although sometimes they demonstrate these qualities in different ways, these qualities greatly affect the other characters in the plays . King Claudius and Lady Macbeth are similar in that they both let their crave of power and desire for the crown drive them to deceitfulness, corruption, and even murder, to obtain it. King Claudius and Lady Macbeth are so greedy for wealth and power that they will let nothing get in their way, even if it means deceiving the ones they love. King Claudius was in love with his brother ¹s wife and desired his position as king. In order to obtain these things he went behind Gertrude, his lover ¹s, back and murdered her husband. Shortly after, he married her and took the crown. Not only was this extremely deceitful to Gertrude, but it hurt Hamlet, his nephew, extremely. Lady Macbeth was indeed as power hungry as Claudius, and she too plotted a murder in order for her husband to obtain the crown. In doing this she was extremely deceitful of her lover also. She employed many conniving tricks in order to convince Macbeth to kill King Duncan, such as in scene in Act I, scene seven when she says,  ³From this time such I account thy love. ² Here she is basically saying that Macbeth may prove his undying love for her by killing the king, thus causing him to feel that he is obligated to murder King Duncan. King Claudius and Lady Macbeth are also very good at disguising their deceit. In Hamlet, only Hamlet himself is aware of the true nature of Claudius. All others, including his Wife and subjects, think he is a wonderful and innocent King. Lady Macbeth is the same in that she puts up a wonderful facade for both the public and her husband. Although she is planning a murder Lady Macbeth manages to still act as a smiling, gracious hostess. Lady Macbeth's house guests and King Duncan, whom she intends to kill, even refer to her as their  ³honour ¹d hostess, ² in Act I, scene six. Her husband is also fooled by her charade and is unable to see her evil intent as she cons him into killing the king. Lady Macbeth keeps this facade until the end of the play when her t rapped feelings finally drive her mad. Another thing these two characters have in common is that... ...f his encroaching madness, and partly as a ploy to throw off Claudius and his spies. Ophelia was so shocked and confused over Hamlet ¹s complete betrayal that she could hardly go on living, and in the end she became so overwhelmed that she committed suicide. Lady Macbeth also affected many characters with her deceitfulness. The character most greatly affected was her husband, Macbeth. Until he was convinced by his wife, Macbeth had decided that he was going to stay loyal to the King, and put all notions of murder out of his head. In Act I, scene seven Macbeth declares,  ³We will proceed no further in this business, ² meaning he has decided to end all thoughts of murdering the king. Lady Macbeth will not give up though, and instead begins to try to further lure Macbeth into participating in her corrupt plans. Eventually she is successful in doing this, and Macbeth murders Duncan. Lady Macbeth lit a spark of evil in Macbeth that turned into his destruction. Macbeth became pow er hungry and murdered many others in order to have it. Lady Macbeth turned her loyal, honorable husband into a corrupt fool. In the end it all lead to the total destruction of a once well respected, virtuous hero.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Behavioral Influences on Health

It can be argued that various behavioral, psychological, sociocultural and lifestyle factors are related to the various causes of human mortality. Rationally, the root causes of various diseases that cause human death are associated with these factors. Therefore, we can argue on the point of view on how these factors are related to human health and the spread of various diseases that ultimately causes mortality.At one level, behavioral human factors can be argued as the characteristic phenomena of behavioral conceptions that may lead to contracting diseases. In this respect, human behavior could be argued in terms the relationship with the peer groups, morality, sexual behavior, attitudes towards oneself, virtues and moral obligations. Various ill-behavioral conceptions and tendencies have been known to act as the root cause of various diseases.For example, peer pressure may result to deviance, alcoholism, smoking and other conceptions (Joseph, 2005) From the implications of these be haviors therefore, various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and other internal disorders and ailments that are strong causatives of human mortality tend to occur. The strength and the models of a personal behavior can therefore determine the propensity with which he/she can contract certain killer diseases and ailments at the expense of other behavioral patterns.The levels of morality which is shaped by the behavioral models can be a factor towards which killer diseases like HIV-AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases and ailments that are vulnerable in causing mortality can be transmitted. Psychological factors are the human related factors that shape and determine the standards of ones health. Various studies in health psychology have depicted a close relationship between the cognition, personality, perception, interpersonal relationships and personal emotions towards human health related issues.Various psychological disorders that arise as a result of disruption in the psy chological context of a person have been known to cause mortality. The principal researches done on both clinical and health psychology has revealed various diseases that are psychologically related and which are of great impact to human health. The human psychological development is a complex autonomy that is attributed to both the mental and the cognitive personality.Various attributes are of great impact to the psychological provisions of a person that causes disability in the functional layout of ones psychological dispensation. Research studies have shown that the rate of mortality as a result of psychological disorders is increasingly becoming more (Benjamin, 2003) Sociocultural factors refer to the structural factors within the family footage or the society which shapes and determines the contexts of a person’s health. These structural settings dictate the functionality, response and behavior of a person within such a social context.Within the family setting, various h ealth related factors may arise such as level of dietary, physical health, family pressure, and various influences such as the level of education, income, and living standards. Either, various cultural parameters may shape the nature of human health. These include cultural integration, family relations, cultural stereotypes and other factors. The nature of the sociocultural attributes has been of great influence in shaping the contexts of human health and possibilities of contracting diseases that cause death (Ann, 1998)Lifestyles refer to the modalities of person’s way of life. It is determined by various factors such as level of education, family backgrounds, level of income, cultural factors and other. Generally, the nature of a person’s or families’ lifestyles may be attributes towards contracting diseases, the ability of seeking medical attention and the vulnerability of achieving control and preventive measures. Consequently, a person’s health is de termined preferential by the standards and levels of his/her lifestyles. (James, Simon, 2006) Behavioral Influences on Health It can be argued that various behavioral, psychological, sociocultural and lifestyle factors are related to the various causes of human mortality. Rationally, the root causes of various diseases that cause human death are associated with these factors. Therefore, we can argue on the point of view on how these factors are related to human health and the spread of various diseases that ultimately causes mortality. At one level, behavioral human factors can be argued as the characteristic phenomena of behavioral conceptions that may lead to contracting diseases.In this respect, human behavior could be argued in terms the relationship with the peer groups, morality, sexual behavior, attitudes towards oneself, virtues and moral obligations. Various ill-behavioral conceptions and tendencies have been known to act as the root cause of various diseases. For example, peer pressure may result to deviance, alcoholism, smoking and other conceptions (Joseph, 2005) From the implications of these b ehaviors therefore, various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and other internal disorders and ailments that are strong causatives of human mortality tend to occur.The strength and the models of a personal behavior can therefore determine the propensity with which he/she can contract certain killer diseases and ailments at the expense of other behavioral patterns. The levels of morality which is shaped by the behavioral models can be a factor towards which killer diseases like HIV-AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases and ailments that are vulnerable in causing mortality can be transmitted. Psychological factors are the human related factors that shape and determine the standards of ones health.Various studies in health psychology have depicted a close relationship between the cognition, personality, perception, interpersonal relationships and personal emotions towards human health related issues. Various psychological disorders that arise as a result of disruption in the ps ychological context of a person have been known to cause mortality. The principal researches done on both clinical and health psychology has revealed various diseases that are psychologically related and which are of great impact to human health.The human psychological development is a complex autonomy that is attributed to both the mental and the cognitive personality. Various attributes are of great impact to the psychological provisions of a person that causes disability in the functional layout of ones psychological dispensation. Research studies have shown that the rate of mortality as a result of psychological disorders is increasingly becoming more (Benjamin, 2003) Sociocultural factors refer to the structural factors within the family footage or the society which shapes and determines the contexts of a person’s health.These structural settings dictate the functionality, response and behavior of a person within such a social context. Within the family setting, various health related factors may arise such as level of dietary, physical health, family pressure, and various influences such as the level of education, income, and living standards. Either, various cultural parameters may shape the nature of human health. These include cultural integration, family relations, cultural stereotypes and other factors.The nature of the sociocultural attributes has been of great influence in shaping the contexts of human health and possibilities of contracting diseases that cause death (Ann, 1998) Lifestyles refer to the modalities of person’s way of life. It is determined by various factors such as level of education, family backgrounds, level of income, cultural factors and other. Generally, the nature of a person’s or families’ lifestyles may be attributes towards contracting diseases, the ability of seeking medical attention and the vulnerability of achieving control and preventive measures.Consequently, a person’s health is de termined preferential by the standards and levels of his/her lifestyles. (James, Simon, 2006) Reference Ann, F. (1998). Human Health and Diseases. New York, Heinemann Benjamin. G. C. (2003) Reducing unhealthy Behaviors: Where do we start? American journal f public health, Vol. 93 James, R & Simon, G (2006) What is Human Health. London, Routledge Joseph, k (2005) Social Inequalities towards Human Health, Journal of Pediatrics,

Monday, January 6, 2020

Bp The Spill Of The Gulf Of Mexico - 921 Words

On April 20, 2010, an explosion occurred aboard BP contracted Transocean Ltd Deepwater Horizon oil rig stationed in the Gulf of Mexico. Eleven workers were killed instantly. Unfortunately, the BP management did not wake up that morning (or countless mornings before) expecting the event to occur for it took them almost 4 months to clean up the spill. The first month was spent forecasting the rate of the spill and having President Barack Obama tour the site. Only on May 26, 2010 did BP initiate the first form of clean up procedure known as top kill. Needless to say, this attempt failed. Thus, well over into the second month after the incident, oil remained leaking and BP had not yet figured out how to contain it. Finally on July 10, 2010 BP removed a timeworn containment cap from the well to install a new one. At last, on July 15, the oil stopped flowing freely. 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